Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Suicide Bombing Essay Example for Free

Self destruction Bombing Essay Self destruction psychological warfare isn't primarily the result of Islamic fundamentalism or some other fiendishness philosophy autonomous of situation. The world chief in self destruction fear based oppression is the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka theyre a Marxist gathering, a common gathering, a Hindu gathering. The Tamil Tigers have submitted more self destruction psychological militant assaults than Hamas or Islamic Jihad. Rather, what in excess of 95 percent of all self destruction fear monger assaults since 1980 share for all intents and purpose are not religion, yet a particular mainstream objective: to urge current vote based systems to pull back military powers from the region the psychological oppressors see as their country. From Lebanon to Chechnya to Kashmir to Sri Lanka toward the West Bank, each self destruction psychological oppressor battle since 1980 has had as its primary target to constrain a popularity based state to pull back battle powers from an area that the fear mongers prize. Generally are hierarchical roused and enthusiasm and strictly inspiration are two unique edges of same picture. Strict talk may help convince assailants that their motivation is either essential or respectable, and that celebrates or renames self destruction as suffering, yet it doesn't clarify why self destruction aggressors pick that specific strategy. These can be clarified by considering some different elements like individual, authoritative, ecological and injury based inspirations. Self destruction Bombing is a demonstration of viciousness that murders the assailant himself notwithstanding spectators, however that likewise speaks to a strategy of fear based oppressor associations. The plane sees in his psyche that by dehumanizing others he will get additional prizes like the radicals and aficionados of strict sections think; by giving their life they would be allowed to enter the paradise. Some different reasons which mentally impact the psyche of a fear based oppressors are close to home inspiration, hierarchical, natural, injury based inspirations. Associations give the methods, techniques and gathering self-inspired principal self destruction fear based oppression activities and regularly the belief system also. They emerge from an unpredictable blend of social and political conditions, mental and strict setting and transaction between the activities, notions and talk of fear gatherings, their supporters and the apparent oppressor/foe. When taking a gander at the inspirations on the authoritative level we should recognize that fear supporting associations are to a great extent political in their inspirations and resort to psychological oppression when other political arrangements have fizzled and to self destruction psychological oppression when a particular situation exist. At the point when one considers the self destruction dread gatherings employments of religion to spur people to join to kick the bucket, it bodes well. Any devotee of any confidence who is convinced of the will demonstration in remarkable manners. Its history portrays that in south India, in the late eleventh century, the nearby Kulasekhara realm had unique self-destructive crews to battle against their strong neighbors, the Cholas. These Nair warriors were exceptionally prepared in purported Kalaris. These Nair race later changed as the leaders of the district, and in war festivlas like Mamankam, they were still being used aganist the Zamorin leaders of Calicut. In the late seventeenth century, Qing official Yu Yonghe recorded that harmed Dutch troopers battling against Koxingas powers for control of Taiwan in 1661 would go through black powder to blow both themselves and their adversaries as opposed to be taken prisoner. In any case, the Chinese eyewitness may have confounded such self-destructive strategies with the standard Dutch military act of subverting and exploding positions as of late overwhelm by the foe which nearly cost Koxinga his life during the attack. During the Belgian Revolution, Dutch Lieutenant Jan van Speijk exploded his own boat in the harbor of Antwerp to forestall its catch by the Belgians. Another model was the Prussian trooper Karl Klinke on 18 April 1864 at the Battle of Dybbol, who passed on puncturing a Danish fortress. In the eighteenth century John Paul Jones expounded on Ottoman mariners setting their own boats ablaze and slamming the boats of their foes, despite the fact that they knew this implied unavoidable demise for them. Present day self destruction besieging as a political apparatus can be followed back to the death of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1881. Alexander succumbed to a Nihilist plot. While driving on one of the focal boulevards ofSaint Petersburg, close to the Winter Palace, he was mortally injured by the blast of hand-made explosives and passed on a couple of hours a short time later. The Tsar was murdered by an individual from Narodnaya Volya,Ignacy Hryniewiecki, who passed on while purposefully detonating the bomb during the assault. Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff planned to kill Adolf Hitler by self destruction bomb in 1943, however couldn't finish the assault. During the Battle for Berlin the Luftwaffe flew Selbstopfereinsatz against Soviet extensions over the Oderriver. These missions were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron under the order of Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Lange. From 17 April until 20 April 1945, utilizing any airplane that were accessible, the Luftwaffe asserted that the unit crushed 17 scaffolds; anyway the military student of history Antony Beevor when expounding on the occurrence believes this was misrepresented and that lone the railroad connect at Kustrin was certainly obliterated. He remarks that thirty-five pilots and airplane was a significant expense to pay for such a restricted and transitory achievement. The missions were canceled when the Soviet ground powers arrived at the region of the units airbase at Juterbog. Following World War II, Viet Minh passing volunteers battled against the French Colonial Forces by utilizing a long stick-like dangerous to pulverize French tanks. It has out of nowhere taken off out of control spreading from Lebanon to Palestine, Sri Lanka, Chechnya, Morocco, Indonesia, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Iraq and now tragically in any event, beginning in Europe and European reproduced planes currently in any event, focusing on Europe itself. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) completes its first self destruction besieging at the Nelliady armed force camp murdering 40 security power (SF) faculty. May 21st 1911 Former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and 18 people are executed by a female self destruction aircraft in the town of Sriperumbudur, roughly 30 miles from Chennai, capital of the southern State of Tamil Nadu. This was the historical backdrop of self destruction shelling which shows that none of them were moved reason for Islam. The psychological militant expect he is in an extraterrestrial fight, including prophetically catastrophic powers which will clear out either his side or the other, thus testing a war of resistance; He ought to dehumanize and his foes by considering them to be the adversaries of God; In joining the gathering and taking on its qualities and lessons, he has taken in the brain of God is approved to act in the fight by the desire of God; The fight wherein he is battling is for hallowed qualities and he should go to unprecedented intends to kill and spot out those he sees as wrongdoers even guiltless regular people who he accepts are disrupting the general flow of and affronting God’s will. It might be imperative that self destruction aircraft for the most part are somewhat youthful guys between the ages of 18 and 27. This reality is groundbreaking for various reasons. Initially, it is the age when testosterone takes off. Studies fundamentally connected testosterone creation to predominance direction in guys. At the point when the longing to rule is fulfilled, high testosterone isn't identified with an ascent in forcefulness, anyway when such want is disappointed it brings about expanded likelihood of forceful reaction against oneself or others. The primary inspirational set is an injury based and happens inside zones of dynamic clash. It is frequently: nationalistic; saw as far as self and network guard; expressive with respect to distributing equity to the apparent adversary occupier; and incorporates demonstrations of retribution. The people inspired inside this set have seen firsthand and over the TV their neighbors, relatives and friends and family murdered by what they see as an involving power. Many have grown up seeing innumerable demonstrations of savagery and thus have not grown regularly and frequently experience the ill effects of posttraumatic stress and dissociative issue. Many have lost positions, instructive chances, been embarrassed, and regularly battle for fundamental day by day needs and security. While most of damaged people in strife zones won't become self destruction aircraft regardless of whether welcomed to do as such, an amazingly little gathering will get defenseless against psychological militant belief systems that advance this strategy. While self destruction fear based oppression is arranged and executed by people who are individuals from associations, gatherings, or cells, these two levels are thusly impacted by more extensive natural conditions that incorporate the political, social, chronicled, social, financial, and strict setting. Unmistakably, a portion of these sub-components of the more extensive condition are more applicable sometimes than in others. Robert Pape, a political theory teacher at the University of Chicago and a famous master on self destruction psychological oppression, contends in his new book Dying To Win that albeit Islamic fundamentalism is by all accounts the undeniable essential diver for self destruction fear based oppression, in any event half of the self destruction fear monger assaults during the period 1980-2003 were not related with Muslim fundamentalists. The conviction for the solid connection between Islamic fundamentalism and self destruction fear mongering, Pape says, has energized the conviction that to stay away from future assaults like those of 11 September 2001, there is a dire requirement for an extreme change of Muslim social orders. In any case, this assumed association between self destruction psychological warfare and Islamic fundamentalism is misdirecting and perhaps promising local and international strategies that are probably going to intensify Americas circumstance. Among 1980 and the finish of 2003 there were 315 self destruction fear monger acts. The general head is the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, a mainstream bunch battling to set up an autonomous state. As per a few records, the T

Saturday, August 22, 2020

History of India Essay

India, or Bharat, the fifth biggest and the second populated nation on the planet, is one of only a handful scarcely any nations which can flaunt an old, profound established and different culture, which stretches back to 5000 years. In old occasions, India was known as ‘Bharata Varsha’, the nation of the incredible ruler of Puranic occasions called Bharat, and was accepted to be a piece of the island mainland called ‘Jambu Dvipa’. Geographically, India shaped piece of the Gondwana land and was connected to Antarctica and Australia, before it was freed from the Antarctica complex around 135 million years back and began floating towards the north lastly joining South Asia around 45 million years prior. The Siwalik lower regions of the north-western Himalayas filled in as home to the fossil primate sort known as Ramapithecus, which experienced somewhere in the range of 14 million years back. Looks into have additionally discovered that an animal categories taking after the Australopithecus lived in India nearly 2 million years back. A few anthropologists accept that the Chotanagpur area saw the change of Homo Erectus to Homo Sapiens. This case depends on the discoveries of hand tomahawks and edges in the district of Pathalgarwa and the revelation of Harappan ceramics in the close by territories. Early Civilisations Broad archeological unearthings completed at Mohenjodaro in the current Pakistan in 1922 uncovered the presence of a profoundly refined and urbanized culture known as the Harappan Civilization in India, which ruled the north-western piece of the Indian Subcontinent. It is accepted that this civilisation secured a zone of 1600 km from east to west and 1100 km from north to south, which surpasses the region involved by contemporary civilisations like the Egyptian and Mesopotamian Civilisations. This civilisation is commonly dated from around 2600 to 2000 B.C. In any case, Carbon-14 examination of the structures at Mehrgarh close to the Bolan Pass has demonstrated that the individuals of this spot were developing wheat and grain and tending sheep and goat as right on time as 5000 B.C. Archeologists have at this point found in excess of 800 locales identified with the Harappan Civilisation. Most researchers accept that the Harappan Civilisation was rotted because of the ‘problems of ecology’. The following most significant stage in the Indian history came hundreds of years after the fact with the appearance of Aryans from the northwest of India. The Aryan relocation to India was steady and spread over numerous hundreds of years. There is a distinction of sentiment about the first home of the Aryans. The various proposals given by various researchers change significantly as far as geographic situation on the planet. Bal Gangadhar Tilak recommended that the Arctic locale could be the home of Aryans. P.Giles recommended Hungary, Austria, Bohemia or the Valley of Danube as the conceivable home of Aryans, while Max Muller proposed Central Asia, Penka recommended Germany or Scandinavia, Edward Mayer proposed Plateau of Pamir and Dr B.K.Ghosh and Gordon Childe proposed South Russia. There are other people who vouch for an Indian inception of the Aryans, as Ganganath Jha (starting point from Brahmarishi Desh), D.S.Kala (bumpy area of Himalayas and Kashmir), Avinashchandra Das (Saptasindhu Pradesh) and Rajbali Pandey (Madhya Desh). The Aryans built up an amazing society, prevalently known as Vedic culture, which was especially not the same as the Harappan Culture. The Vedic time frame is isolated into the Rig Vedic Period (1500-1000 B.C.) and the Later Vedic Period (1000-600 B.C.). The Vedic time frame can be considered as the establishment stone for the Indian culture in the entirety of its innumerable perspectives. It established the framework for the Hindu Dharma and created a large group of strict and common writings, which comprise a significant piece of the strict legacy of India. The Vedas, Upavedas, Upanishads, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the Dharmashastras were delivered during these occasions. The organization of gotra and the rank framework showed up in the later Vedic occasions. From this period onwards, India worked as a for all intents and purposes independent political and social unit, which offered ascend to a particular custom that was related principally with Hinduism, albeit different religions, quite Buddhism and Jainism in the antiquated occasions, Islam in the medieval period and Christianity in the cutting edge times, made a solid effect on the socio-social parts of India. Perpetual Diversity There is an unending assorted variety in India beginning from its physical highlights to Geologic structure, fauna and greenery, segment structure, races, dialects, religions, expressions and specialties and customs and conventions. India has been differently depicted as â€Å"the Mini World†, the â€Å"epitome of the world† and a â€Å"ethnological museum†. The decent varieties are dazing to such an extent that for some individuals in the Western world, India stays a land loaded with secrets and fantasies. The assorted variety in India is extraordinary as in it ties the nation together in some type of basic distinguishing proof. Underneath this decent variety lies the progression of Indian human advancement and social structure from the most punctual occasions until the current day. This idea of ‘Unity in Diversity’ is maybe ordinary of India and has filled in as its quality during all ages and during the most unpleasant occasions in its political and social history. Unfortunately various components of Indian culture, especially its show and expressions of the human experience, in spite of going through various political stages, are portrayed by an obvious solidarity and progression. The progressive influxes of relocation into India beginning with the Indo-Greeks (second Century B.C.), the Kushans (First century A.D.), the invasions from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian and others starting in the mid eighth century A.D. lastly the foundation of the Muslim domain by the thirteenth century A.D. furthermore, the appearance of Europeans ‘ the Portuguese, the Dutch, the English, the Danes and the French ‘ into India, have acquired new components in expressions, music, writing, customs and conventions, which got consumed into the Indian lifestyle, along these lines enhancing the Indian culture. From the antiquated occasions India not just consumed the remote societies into its composite overlap, yet it additionally figured out how to spread the rich components of its own one of a kind culture in various pieces of the world. It is truly recorded that the Chola rulers had social contacts with nations like Ilamandalam (Sri Lanka), Sri Vijaya (Sumatra), Chavakam (Java), Kamboja (Cambodia) and Kadaram (Malay Peninsula). Confirmations of these early Indian contacts are as yet found in the workmanship and engineering of these nations. The Southeast Asian nations framed a fortification of Indian culture from the early hundreds of years of the Christian period. The different Southeast Asian dialects show solid impact of Sanskrit. Numerous prior realms of these nations had received Hinduism as their religion, whose impact is noticeable even today. India presents an image of solidarity in decent variety to which history gives no equal. There is finished amicability in India in every one of its social components. Religion and reasoning, which shapes the bedrock of any civilisation, are apparent in India as every significant religion on the planet †Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zoroastrianism and Judaism. A few remarkable philosophical considerations like Kapila’s Sankhya Philosophy, Patanjali’s Yoga, Gautami’s Nyaya, Kananada’s Vaisheshika and Jaimini’s Purva Mimamsa created in India and pulled in the consideration of the outside world. Strict resistance has been the quality of the Indian civilisation directly from the antiquated days. Hindu sages pronounce that there is no single religion that encourages ways prompting an elite way to salvation. All authentic profound ways are legitimate and every single incredible religion resemble the parts of a tree ‘ the tree of religion. This regulation establishes framework for the Hindu perfect of all inclusive congruity. This custom was conveyed forward in the medieval occasions by the Sufi and Bhakti holy people like Ramananda, Kabir, Guru Nanak, Baba Farid, Baba Malukadasa, Baba Dharinidasa and Garibadasa. In reality, the composers of the Indian Constitution guaranteed the duration of these radiant conventions when they announced India as â€Å"Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic†. Provincial Diversity: Each territory of India has its own language and set of clans, celebrations, expressions and specialties and customs and conventions. While there are the Chenchus clans in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, Bhils and Gonds in the Central India, Dogris, Gujjars and Ladakhis in the Jammu and Kashmir and Nagas, Bodos, Mishmis, Gharos and Khasis in the Northeast, there are clans like the Jarewas, Onges, Andamanis and Sentinelese in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. There are a few celebrations, which are common of specific states, towns or towns like the Bonnalu of Andhra Pradesh, Pushkar of Rajasthan, Rajrani of Orissa, Teej of Rajasthan and Bogali Bihu of Assam. Every locale is additionally related to its run of the mill society and ancestral move structures, as Puli Vesham of Andhra Pradesh, Keli Gopal of Assam, Chhau of Bihar, Dandia of Gujarat, Bhangra of Punjab and Otthanthulal of Kerala. A comparative differentiation can likewise be built up in the society dramatization, theater and puppetry structures, as additionally human expressions and artworks. Advancement of Arts and Fine Arts There was a constant advancement of show, music, move, painting and people works of art under the diverse political standards in India that eventually prompted the improvement of the unmistakable ‘Indian’ component in every one of these structures. Along these lines, inside the climate of Indian culture one can distinguish ‘Indian Music’, ‘Indian Dance’, ‘Indian Theatre’, ‘Indian Literature’, ‘Indian Fairs and Festivals’, etc. Indian music has a long and u

Tuesday, August 18, 2020

Underground Railroad

Underground Railroad Underground Railroad, in U.S. history, loosely organized system for helping fugitive slaves escape to Canada or to areas of safety in free states. It was run by local groups of Northern abolitionists , both white and free blacks. The metaphor first appeared in print in the early 1840s, and other railroad terminology was soon added. The escaping slaves were called passengers; the homes where they were sheltered, stations; and those who guided them, conductors. This nomenclature, along with the numerous, somewhat glorified, personal reminiscences written by conductors in the postwar period, created the impression that the Underground Railroad was a highly systematized, national, secret organization that accomplished prodigious feats in stealing slaves away from the South. In fact, most of the help given to fugitive slaves on their varied routes north was spontaneously offered and came not only from abolitionists or self-styled members of the Underground Railroad, but from anyone move d to sympathy by the plight of the runaway slave before his eyes. The major part played by free blacks, of both North and South, and by slaves on plantations along the way in helping fugitives escape to freedom was underestimated in nearly all early accounts of the railroad. Moreover, the resourcefulness and daring of the fleeing slaves themselves, who were usually helped only after the most dangerous part of their journey (i.e., the Southern part) was over, were probably more important factors in the success of their escape than many conductors readily admitted. In some localities, like Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Wilmington, Del., and Newport, Ind. (site of the activities of Levi Coffin ), energetic organizers did manage to loosely systematize the work; Quakers were particularly prominent as conductors, and among the free blacks the exploits of Harriet Tubman stand out. In all cases, however, it is extremely difficult to separate fact from legend, especially since relatively few enslaved blacks, probably no more than between 1,000 and 5,000 a year between 1830 and 1860, escaped successfully. Far from being kept secret, details of escapes on the Underground Railroad were highly publicized and exaggerated in both the North and the South, although for different reasons. The abolitionists used the Underground Railroad as a propaganda device to dramatize the evils of slavery; Southern slaveholders publicized it to illustrate Northern infidelity to the fugitive slave laws . The effect of this publicity, with its repeated tellings and exaggerations of slave escapes, was to create an Underground Railroad legend that represented a humanitarian ideal of the preâ€"Civil War period but strayed far from reality. W. Still's The Underground Railroad (1872) contains the narratives of slaves who escaped the South through Philadelphia. See also W. H. Siebert's pioneering though somewhat misleading The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (1898, repr. 1968); for extensively revised accounts, see L. Gara, The Liberty Line (1961), D. Blight, ed., Passages to Freedom (2004), F. Bordewich, Bound for Canaan (2005), and E. Foner, Gateway to Freedom (2015). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. See more Encyclopedia articles on: U.S. History

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Professional Ethics, Trust, And Acm Code Of Ethics Essay

How does professional ethic play a role in the IT industry? How does the ACM code of ethics help set out the expectations of the professional’s behavior? Is a whistle-blowing morally permissible in some cases even if trust has been violated? In answering these questions, the paper will dive deeply into the definitions of professional ethics, trust, and ACM code of Ethics. Next, is the examination of De George’s model and how it applies to professional ethics and the analysis of a recent case involving Edward Snowden, an ex-NSA employee, who intentionally leaked sensitive US-government information. Professional Ethics When working in an organization, it is usually important to establish professional ethics while following consistent ethical principles. Professional ethics are personal and corporate standards of behavior that are set by businesses, associations, and organization. It creates an institution that reflects our own values and make us feel more confident about what is an acceptable behavior and what is not. This type of ethic could vary depending on the various types of situations, professions, and personal values. Many professionals that are trusted by the public like doctors, accountants, engineers and even an information technologist all have a Code of Ethics, which sets out expectations of the member’s behavior and how they operate internally and externally. Within the IT profession, is the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Code of Ethics which isShow MoreRelatedRequirement of Certification for Higher Education1115 Words   |  4 Pageseducation can also be used in substitute for the 1,500 hours of experience as well. This certification is the most attainable by a college student still in school. The most valuable and sought-after certification is that of the Project Management Professional (PMP). 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Information technology (IT) users need a code of ethics developed, so that they can navigate through the ethical issues they confront while using information technology. When ethical violations occur, enforcement of the ethical standards is required. With the advancement of online education, there is a need to interpret how a code of ethics would be established within this academic environment. Societal changes caused by information technologyRead MoreElection Essay1239 Words   |  5 Pagesan email. In other words: we are not making our elections any safer by withholding information about the scope and scale of the threat. (Perlroth, Wines, Rosenberg, 2017). Denial is not the correct route to take when information, security, and ethics is on the line. 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ACM position the midwife as the primary profession for quality maternity care founded during training, through the direction of the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) â€Å"Code of Professional Conduct For Midwives In Australia† (CPC) and reinforced by the â€Å"Code of Ethics ForRead MoreThe Midwife As Distinguished By Leap1512 Words   |  7 PagesCollege of Midwives (ACM) (2016a) defines the midwife role as meeting â€Å"each woman’s social, emotional, physical, spiritual and cultural needs, expectations and context as defined by the woman herself† (para. 7). ACM position the midwife as the primary profession for quality maternity care founded during training, through the direction of the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) â€Å"Code of Professional Conduct For Midwives In Australia† (CPC) and reinforced by the â€Å"Code of Ethics For Midwives InRead MoreDoing Ethics Technique4045 Words   |  17 PagesAJIS vol. 10 no. 2 May 2003 DOING ETHICS: A UNIVERSAL TECHNIQUE IN AN ACCESSIBILITY CONTEXT Christopher R. Simpson1, Liddy Nevile2, Oliver K. Burmeister3 1 Adjunct Teaching Fellow, School of Information Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia, E-mail:; 2 E-mail:; 3 Swinburne Computer-Human Interaction Laboratory, School of Information Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia, E-mail:;

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Decision Essay - 1162 Words

Decision Everything you do is a choice. You choose the way you are living today. As we walk on the path of life, we are presented with cross roads and forks. Some are pretty obvious which turn we should take. However, not everything is easy in life. And in the fast pace life we are currently living in right now, we move so fast that we meet many more challenges than before and often, we hastily decide on the choices we make. You will make decisions in your life. Some of these decisions will be incredibly good and result with you experiencing a much improved quality of life. Other decisions will be poor, yielding little benefit, or worse, cause more damage than good. Yes, whether its right or wrong, it still is a†¦show more content†¦She realized her boss only wanted to squeeze more work out of her. In short, her current job sucks. Thus, she knew she has to move. Thats basically seems like a logical move! But she also reminded herself that the job is quite stable and it pays her pretty well. Moving away from this job means moving away from a stable source of income into the unknown again. So, what can she do? What are the choices here? As I said earlier, theres is no right or wrong choices here. You decide which course of action is best for you. Here, the one that is willing to take a bit of risk and willing to take on new challenges for a better job prospect will naturally decide to leave for a new job. And the less secure will choose to continue with the lousy job. My point here is, dont blame the circumstances. Blame yourself if you find in a situation that you do not like. It was your decision that brought you to where you are today. Did anyone make the decision for you? Even if someone forces you to make a decision, ultimately, it still is your choice and decision. This is where the successful differentiate themselves from the average. They realize that their decisions today determine their future. So, its not a choice of lik ing. They deliberately choose to be what they want to be in the future. In short, what you do today defines what you are tomorrow. And all this boils down the decisions you make in life. With all of the saying, Ive madeShow MoreRelatedDecision Decisions : Decisions And Decisions1210 Words   |  5 PagesDecisions, decisions. Should I follow my heart and do what I always wanted to do? Or just accept the reality that my mind is telling me? This was a constant battle within myself in which led to a lot of sleepless nights and long talks with my parents, which were not always the greatest. Ultimately a moment in my life had come where I only had two choices. The choices were; either I continue to play soccer and go to college; or I would work and go to college. I had to reach a verdict, yet I had twoRead MoreDecisions, Decisions, Decisions Essay443 Words   |  2 PagesDecisions, Decisions, Decisions People make decisions every single day, even if they know it or not. Whether it is an important decision as in buying the right car, or a little decision as in deciding what to eat for lunch. No matter what the decision maybe, one has to make choices everyday. Although it may be the wrong choice later on, no one has the ability to look into the future. But one must move on even though it may not be the right choice. Robert Frost explains this well in â€Å"The RoadRead MoreDecision Analysis : The Decision1528 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Decision analysis provides powerful techniques to structure complex problems, identify optimal choices, and facilitate communication between the decision analyzer and the person makes the decision. One of the most important values of these techniques is that they enable decision making to be rational rather than intuitive or holistic. They provide a framework for rational decision making in an uncertain environment. As modern decision analysis has been studied for more than five decadesRead MoreDecision Decisions : Choosing A College1199 Words   |  5 PagesDecisions, decisions. Choosing a college is one of the most life-altering decisions that an individual can make, and choosing the right college is a stressful process for high school seniors. Personally, the process overwhelmed me, and I did not know where to begin it especially when my controlling parents did not approve any of my out-of-state choices. Although I have always been obedient and listened to my parents’ every command, I disobeyed my parents for the first time in my life when I decidedRead MoreLife Decisions Are An Individual Decision Essay1009 Words   |  5 PagesEnd of life decisions are an individual decision. If able, we would all like to be able to decide where, when and how. Since most of us don’t get that choice, it is important to communicate and discuss with close family your personal wishes for your end of life decisions. I don’t think there is any one right or wrong answer, it is just important to be thoughtful and intentional with communicating our wishes. Euthanasia Euthanasia has always been and will always be a controversial subject forRead MoreDecision Making An Effective Decision1094 Words   |  5 PagesDecision-making is an important process. It can be a task, which needs a simple decision to be made or a difficult situation involving several issues. In difficult situations, there may be uncertainty and complexities, wherein there may be interrelated factors that could lead to high-risk consequences, the impact of the decision made could be very important. Every situation will have its own set of uncertainties and consequences. Interpersonal issues too come in the way of making an effective decisionRead MoreDecision Analysis : Decision Making1760 Words   |  8 PagesAbstract Decision making is one of the most vital tasks that an entrepreneur, company, or managers are often called to make in order to alter the cause of a business venture or influence the course a business will take. Decision analysis thus entails the discipline of appraising intricate alternatives with regard to values and uncertainty. Value, in most incidences, is expressed monetarily and is a major management concern. Additionally, decision analysis offers awareness into how distinct alternativesRead MoreEthical Decision Making : Ethical Decisions1496 Words   |  6 PagesFacing Ethical Decisions How does a person determine what is right or wrong when making a decision? Most people faced with an ethical decision usually revert to their personal values that hopefully guide them through the decision-making process. Assessing values and morals are an important role when making ethical decisions and how others view a person after making that decision. â€Å"Once we grasp the underlying concepts of making important decisions, we need to know how to apply them.† (Fisher, 2005)Read MoreEthical Decision Making : Ethical Decisions1047 Words   |  5 PagesEthical Decision-Making The first step in the CPA (2000) ethical decision-making model is identification of the individuals and groups potentially affected by the decision. In the ethical scenario I presented earlier, the individuals directly involved and likely to be most affected by the decision include the 54-year old woman and myself as the counsellor. Those who will likely be indirectly affected by the decision would be the woman’s family, including her 20-year old daughter, and the agencyRead MoreDecision Tree Analysis On Decision Trees1277 Words   |  6 PagesDecision Tree Analysis A decision tree is a widespread technique of designing and envisaging predictive patterns and systems. It is a tree-structured design of a set of aspects to test in direction to expect the output. Decision trees are effective and accepted implements for prediction and classification. The value of decision trees is because of the reality that, in compare to neural networks, it signifies rules. Rules can quickly be articulated so that individuals can comprehend them or even directly

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

All the Presidents of India Free Essays

1| Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884–1963)| | 26 January 1950| 13 May 1962| Dr. S Radhakrishnan| 1952 election page  Ã‚  1957 election page Prasad was the first President of independent India from Bihar. [7][8]  He was also an independence activist of the Indian Independence Movement. We will write a custom essay sample on All the Presidents of India or any similar topic only for you Order Now [9]Prasad was the only president to serve for two terms in office. [4]| 2| Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888–1975)| | 13 May 1962| 13 May 1967| Zakir Hussain| 1962 election page Radhakrishnan was a prominent philosopher, writer, a  Knight of the Realm  and also held the position of  vice chancellor  of the  Andhra University  andBanaras Hindu University. 10]  He was also made a Knight of the  Golden Army of Angels  by  Pope Paul VI. [11]| 3| Zakir Hussain (1897–1969)| | 13 May 1967| 3 May 1969| Varahagiri Venkata Giri| 1967 election page Hussain was vice chancellor of theAligarh Muslim University  and a recipient of  Padma Vibhushan  andBharat Ratna. [12]  He died before his term of office was ended. | | Varahagiri Venkata Giri  * (1894–1980)| | 3 May 1969| 20 July 1969| | Giri was appointed as acting president following the death of Hussain. [13]  He resigned in a few months to take part in the presidential elections. [5]| | Muhammad Hidayatullah  * 1905–1992)| | 20 July 1969| 24 August 1969| | Hidayatullah served as the  Chief Justice of India, and was a recipient of the  Order of the British Empire. [14]  He served as acting president until the election of Giri as the President of India. | 4| Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1894–1980)| | 24 August 1969| 24 August 1974| Gopal Swarup Pathak| 1969 election page Giri is the only person to have served as both an acting president and president of India. He was a recipient of the Bharat Ratna, and has functioned as Indian Minister of Labour and High Commissioner to  Ceylon  (Sri Lanka). [15]| 5| Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed 1905–1977)| | 24 August 1974| 11 February 1977| Basappa Danappa Jatti| 1974 elect ion page Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed served as a Minister before being elected as president. He died in 1977 before his term of office ended, and was the second Indian president to have died during a term of office. [16]| | Basappa Danappa Jatti  * (1912–2002)| | 11 February 1977| 25 July 1977| | Jatti was the vice president of India during Ahmed’s term of office, and was sworn in as acting president upon Ahmed’s death. He earlier functioned as the Chief Minister for the State ofMysore. [16][17]| 6| Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 1913–1996)| | 25 July 1977| 25 July 1982| Muhammad Hidayatullah| 1977 election page N. S. Reddy was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh State. Reddy was the only Member of Parliament from the Janata Party to get elected from Andhra Pradesh. [18]  He was unanimously elected Speaker of the  Lok Sabha  on 26 March 1977 and relinquished this office on 13 July 1977 to become the 6th President of India. | 7| Giani Zail Singh (1916–1994)| | 25 July 1982| 25 July 1987| Ramaswamy Venkataraman| 1982 election page In March 1972, Singh assumed the position of chief Minister of Punjab, and in 1980, he became Union Home Minister. 19]| 8| Ramaswamy Venkataraman (1910–2009)| | 25 July 1987| 25 July 1992| Shankar Dayal Sharma| 1987 election page In 1942, Venkataraman was jailed by the British for his involvement in theIndia’s independence  movement. [20]After his release, he was elected to independent India’s Provisional Parliament as a member of the Congress Party in 1950 and eventually joined the central government, where he first served as Minister of Finance and Industry and later as Minister of Defence. [21]| 9| Shankar Dayal Sharma 1918–1999)| | 25 July 1992| 25 July 1997| Kocheril Raman Narayanan| 1992 election page Sharma was Chief Minister of  Madhya Pradesh, and the Indian Minister for Communications. He has also served as the governor of  Andhra Pradesh,  Punjaband  Maharashtra. [22]| 10| Kocheril Raman Narayanan (1920–2005)| | 25 July 1997| 25 July 2002| Krishan Kant| 1997 election page Narayanan served as India’s ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and United States of America. He received doctorates in Science and Law and was also a chancellor in several universities. [23]  He was also the vice-chancellor of  Jawaharlal Nehru University. 24]| 11| A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (1931–)| | 25 July 2002| 25 July 2007| Bhairon Singh Shekhawat| 2002 election page Kalam, was a scientist who played a leading role in the development of India’s ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs. [25]  Kalam also received theBharat Ratna. | 12| Pratibha Patil (1934–)| | 25 July 2007| Incumbent| Mohammad Hamid Ansari| 2007 election page Patil is the first woman to become the President of India. She was also the first female Governor of Rajasthan. [26][27]| ————————————————- [edit]Timeline How to cite All the Presidents of India, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Tesco Performance Management Performance And Productivity - Free Solu

Question: Discuss about the Tesco Performance Management for Performance and Productivity. Answer: Introduction In recent times, Human Resource Management has emerged as a critical business function. With time, organisation have realized the benefits that performance management system can have. Simply defined, Performance management is a process by which managers and employees work together to plan, monitor and review an employee's work objectives and overall contribution to the organisation. The objective of this report is to discuss the performance management system of Tesco. The company was established in 1919 and since then it has expanded in different parts of the world (Zhao, 2014). Tesco is the largest retailer in UK with a revenue of more than 60 billion pounds (Wrigley, 2014). Analysis It is important that the organisations would be able to achieve a good growth rate only when there is a direct mapping between personal goals and objectives of employees and professional goals and objectives. The presence of a performance management system helps organisations to manage strategic and operational goals (Renwick, 2009). The performance management system for Tesco is a critical HRM function that helps the management to develop future growth strategy. Performance Management for Tesco The performance management system for Tesco is a medium to ensure that the business goals are meet by the employees. It is a strategic tool for the company that helps it to focus on employees and organisation as a whole (Kourtit, 2013). The management of Tesco, as a whole, believes that a company might have a world-class performance management system in place, but the system is only as effective as the managers who implement it. Performance management for Tesco is an all-inclusive process which encompasses organisations strategic goal, and individuals and groups performance and competencies objective (Rigby, 2015). Once these critical factors being defined, then the next procedure is how to be synchronized organisations goal into Human resource management where all the entitlement, rewards, and other criteria are embedded for the success of the organisations to achieve its goal. In the process of implementing performance management, one has to be seriously considered is an integrated training facility which provides essential training based on the employees status and responsibilities to attain the performance management goal. There are six components of performance management system for Tesco. These components can be discussed as: The performance planning component that is the first step and most important component of performance management system Performance appraisal and review that happens between managers and employees Feedback mechanism on the performance of employees. The feedback is provided by the managers and supervisors Pay and Reward system component that focuses on performance linked plan, bonuses, annual compensation, rewards and perks, etc. Performance improvement plans for employees that includes the need of training, coaching and mentoring. Future or potential appraisal of employees that includes the promotion and future growth plan of employees. Drivers of performance management system The key driver of performance management system for Tesco is the need to synchronize the business goals with human resource goals. The management of Tesco realizes that employees are the greatest assets and they would be able to contribute towards organisational goals and objectives only when they can align their personal goals with organisational strategic goals. Aguinis, (2013) mention the importance of getting an effective PMS in place in order to improve the organisation and its business practice. However, if not relevant and effective it may lead to poor performance instead. The confusion of goals and targets and along with the lack of buy in from the employees can be more detrimental to the organisation in the long run. Sometimes, the support of top management of organisation for administration of performance management is often more necessary to implementing a successful PM system than well designed PM system without commitment with the leadership of the organisation (Houy, 20 09). It has been noted that the top management involvement and strong support for PM system implementation goes a long way to affirm its usefulness to the organisation and determine its ultimate effectiveness. Without strong top management backing, the system, no matter how well designed, is doomed to fail. Serious commitment is required not lip service. Key features of Tescos performance management system There are seven key features of the performance management system for Tesco. These key attributes or features can be discussed as: Using annual goals setting. At Tesco, every employees has to discuss his yearly goals and the same are used to track the performance of employees. These goals are linked with the business strategy of Tesco. Involve staff in the goals setting process to increase the ownership. The management of Tesco would develop the goals with the inputs collected from different employees. High commitment, support and ownership from the top management, senior management, and line management. The ownership, support and commitment from the top management and senior leadership is be more than HR ownership (Saravanja, 2011). Train the appraisee and appraiser on the PMS and appraisal system. Tesco has invested a lot on training and development programs for appraisee and appraiser. The focus on training and development programs has helped the company to have a standardize performance management system in place. Appraisal meeting is separated than development discusses meeting and is done before the later. The focus on availability of good managers with strong leadership mindsets. Tesco realizes that it must have leaders and not managers to focus on the path of sustainable development. PMS is supported and integrated with other HR function such as training, development and rewards. Impact of performance management The impact of performance management system has been positive for Tesco. Often times, performance management system remains ineffectual and inefficient because it is be driven by Human Resources department responsibility and it is usually considered as a seasonal ritual of less importance to many managers who considers their core obligation in the company as top priority and rather result to abrasives filling of one directional forms with little or no feedback from other members of the teams or organisational. (Aguinis, 2013). However, this is not the case with Tesco. The performance management system has emerged as a critical business function for Tesco with high impact. With established performance management system, the employees are able to work with high level of motivation and productivity. It has helped employees to define the goals and work to achieve these goals. The impact of performance management system is positive for organisation as well. Tesco has been able to manage its employees well with the established performance management system. It has helped Tesco to achieve its goals and objectives (Moore, 2013). It can be said that both organisation and employees has positive vibes for performance management system and it is expected that this impact would remain positive for Tesco and its employees. One of the negative impacts of this system is an increase in the competition among employees. The performance based reward system is the part of Tescos performance management system. With this system, employees have to work hard to perform better than other employees. The solution to this problem is to develop an organizational culture where employees understand and realize the benefits of performance based reward system. Conclusion It would be correct to say that the companies that want to increase organisational and employee performance and productivity should invest in getting the right managers in place and support them in engaging their employees. For Tesco, performance management system is an ongoing process, the commitment of leadership of Tesco should not be seen as one time pass but also continuous and repetitive. This is because Tesco started well with backing of the top management of the organisation and along the line drop their support by relaxing their commitment and this resulted into poor implementation of performance management system. However, gaining support of performance management system can be enhance with well-designed system that not failed to carry all the categories of employees along in their preliminary consideration. Many times reasons for the performance systems are well laid out and the workforce misconstrue the aim and objectives of the top management or department of human resou rces who hands are not too busy compare to other technical department like operations or accounts. For performance management system to gain support and commitment of employees in Tesco, involvement in the design of the system might give more light into grey areas which mar the whole effort of the system. Nankervis Compton (2006) asserted this view that one way of increasing the acceptance and commitment to performance management system in an organisation is initiate the participation of the employees all levels including the managerial and non-managerial, supervisors and non-supervisors. Employee involvement can also be beneficial in identifying possible problems or weaknesses in a system and in coming up with suggestions for improvement. References Aguinis, H., (2013) Performance management. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Beauvallet, G., Houy, T. (2009). Research on HRM and lean management: a literature survey.International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management,10(1), 14-33. Burke, R.J. Cooper, C.L. (2005)Reinventing Human Resource Management: Challenges and New Directions. London. Routledge, Taylor Francis Group Brannen, M. Y., Moore, F., Mughan, T. (2013, September). Strategic ethnography and reinvigorating Tesco Plc: Leveraging inside/out bicultural bridging in multicultural teams. In Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2013, No. 1, pp. 282-299). Haddock-Millar, J., Rigby, C. (2015, January). Business Strategy and the Environment: Tesco Plc's Declining Financial Performance and Underlying Issues. InGlobal Conference on Business Finance Proceedings(Vol. 10, No. 1, p. 127). Institute for Business Finance Research. Hunter, W., Renwick, D. (2009). Involving British line managers in HRM in a small non-profit work organisation.Employee Relations,31(4), 398-411. Nankervis, R. A., Compton, R. L. (2006) .Performance management: theory in practice? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 44 (1), pp. 83-101 Saravanja, M. (2011) 10 Reasons Why Performance Management Fails and how to remedy them, Regenesys. [Online] Available from: (Accessed: 21 March 2016). Waal, A. Kourtit, K. (2013) Performance Measurement and Management in Practice,International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 62(5), pp. 446-473. Wood, S., Coe, N. M., Wrigley, N. (2014). Multi-scalar localization and capability transference: exploring embeddedness in the Asian retail expansion of Tesco.Regional Studies, 1-21. Zhao, S. (2014). Analyzing and Evaluating Critically Tesco's Current Operations Managemen.Journal of Management and Sustainability,4(4), 184.